Thoth was known as the "Lord of Divine Words" & as a just and Incorruptible Judge.
Thoth is the Egyptian god of writing, magic, wisdom, and the moon. He was one of the most important gods of ancient Egypt alternately said to be self-created or born of the seed of Horus from the forehead of Set. As the son of these two deities, who represented order and chaos respectively, he was also the god of equilibrium and balance and associated closely with both the principle of ma'at (divine balance) and the goddess Ma'at who personified this principle (and who was sometimes seen as his wife). Another of his consorts was the goddess Nehemetawy ('She Who Embraces Those In Need") a protector goddess. In his form as A'an, Thoth presided over the judgment of the dead with Osiris in the Hall of the Truth and those souls who feared they might not pass through the judgment safely were encouraged to call upon Thoth for help. The consort most often associated with Thoth was Seshat, goddess of writing, the keeper of books, and patron goddess of libraries and librarians who was alternately his wife or daughter.
Worship of Thoth began in Lower Egypt most likely in the Pre-Dynastic Period (c. 6000-3150 BCE) and continued through the Ptolemaic Period (323-30 BCE)(which now has to be challenged), the last dynastic era of Egyptian history, marking Thoth's veneration as among the longest of the Egyptian gods or any deity from any civilization. His name was often taken by the kings of Egypt (example, Thutmoses - "Born of Thoth")(Son of MOSES), scribes, and priests. He is most commonly depicted as a man with the head of an ibis or a seated baboon with or without a lunar disc above his head. He was the patron god of scribes and it was said that scribes would pour out one drop of their ink in Thoth's honor before they began their daily work.
Name & Origin
Thoth's Egyptian name was Djehuty (also dhwty) meaning "He Who is Like the Ibis". The ibis was a sacred bird in ancient Egypt as well as a popular pet and associated with wisdom. Other forms of his name are Jehuti, Tahuti, Tehuti, Zehuti, Techu, Tetu, and Lord of the Khemenu (the later city of Hermopolis) which was his major cult center. Hermopolis was so named because of the Greek association of Thoth with their god Hermes and to the Greeks Thoth became Hermes Trimegistus (Thoth the Thrice Great often given as "Three Times Great, Great"). He was also known as "Lord of Ma'at", "Lord of Divine Words", "Scribe of Ma'at in the Company of the Gods", and as a just and incorruptible judge.
Thoth was also known as the "Lord of Divine Words" & as a just and incorruptible judge.
According to one story, Thoth was born "from the lips of Ra" at the beginning of creation and was known as the "god without a mother". In another tale, Thoth is self-created at the beginning of time and, as an ibis, lays the cosmic egg which holds all of creation. He was always closely associated with Ra and the concept of divine order and justice. In a third story, The Contendings of Horus and Set (an Egyptian manuscript from c. 1190-1077 BCE), when Horus and Set are fighting for the right to rule, Thoth is said to have been created from the semen of Horus which was accidentally swallowed by Set during the struggle. Thoth was born from Set's forehead and, in some versions, then mediated the struggle between the gods (in other versions the battle between Horus and Set is resolved by Neith and, in others, by Isis). In every version, Thoth is the scribe who records the events of the contest and offers advice to the gods. He heals both Horus and Set at different times in their battle in order to make sure that both sides are equally capable and none can gain advantage over the other so that the contest will be fair. In this same way, Thoth presided over justice on earth among human beings. Egyptologist Geraldine Pinch writes
Thoth set a divine example as a just judge and an incorruptible official.
He lifted Ma'at, the goddess of justice, to her father, Ra. Thoth was responsible for framing and enforcing the laws of ma'at.
In this role he could be either a gracious peacemaker or a merciless executioner
As Thoth was credited with the creation of a number of branches of knowledge (law, magic, philosophy, religion, science, and writing) he was thought to be an infallible judge capable of rendering completely just decisions. The Greeks admired him so greatly that they credited him as the originator of all knowledge on earth and in the heavens. He was so important to the gods, and especially to Ra, that he was the god chosen to retrieve Ra's daughter from the distant lands she sometimes fled to